Members of the National Academies
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide expert advice on some of the most pressing challenges facing the nation and the world. Their work helps shape sound policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science, engineering, and medicine. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
To meet the government's urgent need for an independent adviser on scientific matters, President Lincoln signed a congressional charter forming the National Academy of Sciences in 1863 to "investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science." As science began to play an ever-increasing role in national priorities and public life, the National Academy of Sciences eventually expanded to include the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the National Academy of Medicine, which was established in 1970 as the Institute of Medicine.
Academy members are among the world's most distinguished scientists, engineers, physicians, and researchers; more than 300 members are Nobel laureates. Members are elected in recognition of outstanding achievements, and membership is considered a high honor. For those at the top of their field, membership in the Members of the National Academies reflects the height of professional achievement and commitment to service.
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, non-profit society of distinguished scholars. Established by an Act of Congress, signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, the NAS is charged with providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. Scientists are elected by their peers to membership in the NAS for outstanding contributions to research.
The NAS is committed to furthering science in America, and its members are active contributors to the international scientific community. Nearly 500 members of the NAS have won Nobel Prizes, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, founded in 1914, is today one of the premier international journals publishing the results of original research.
- James J. Bull (Integrative Biology) 2016
- John B. Goodenough (Mechanical Engineering) 2012
- Allan H. MacDonald (Physics) 2010
- Thomas J.R. Hughes (Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Mechanics) 2009
- Richard W. Aldrich (Neurobiology) 2008
- Wilson S. Geisler III (Psychology) 2008
- David M. Hillis (Integrative Biology) 2008
- Paul F. Barbara* (Chemistry, Biochemistry) 2006
- Alan M. Lambowitz (Molecular Genetics, Microbiology) 2004
- Nancy A. Moran (Integrative Biology) 2004
- Karl W. Butzer (Geography) 1996
- William H. Press (Computer Science) 1994
- Abram Amsel* (Psychology) 1992
- Harry L. Swinney (Physics) 1992
- Luis A. Caffarelli (Mathematics) 1991
- Bryce S. DeWitt* (Physics) 1990
- Robert E. Dickinson (Geological Sciences) 1988
- Karen K. Uhlenbeck (Mathematics) 1986
- Gérard de Vaucouleurs* (Astronomy) 1986
- Allen J. Bard (Chemistry, Biochemistry) 1982
- Richard C. Starr* (Botany) 1976
- Jack E. Myers* (Zoology) 1975
- Harold C. Bold* (Botany) 1973
- Lester J. Reed* (Chemistry, Biochemistry) 1973
- Steven Weinberg (Physics, Astronomy) 1972
- John T. Tate (Mathematics) 1969
- Verne E. Grant* (Botany) 1968
- R. H. Bing* (Mathematics) 1965
- Esmond E. Snell* (Microbiology) 1955
- Karl Folkers* (Chemistry) 1948
- Roger J. Williams* (Clayton Foundation Biochemical Institute) 1946
- John T. Patterson* (Zoology) 1941
- Theophilus S. Painter* (Zoology) 1938
- H. S. Vandiver* (Mathematics) 1934
- Hermann J. Muller* (Biology) 1931
Visit the National Academy of Sciences website.
National Academy of Engineering
Founded in 1964, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is a private, independent, nonprofit institution that provides engineering leadership in service to the nation. The mission of the National Academy of Engineering is to advance the well-being of the nation by promoting a vibrant engineering profession and by marshalling the expertise and insights of eminent engineers to provide independent advice to the federal government on matters involving engineering and technology.
The NAE has more than 2,000 peer-elected members and foreign associates, senior professionals in business, academia, and government who are among the world’s most accomplished engineers. They provide the leadership and expertise for numerous projects focused on the relationships between engineering, technology, and the quality of life.
The NAE is a member of the National Academies, which includes the NAE, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), and the National Research Council (NRC)— which serves as the principal operating arm of the academies. The NAE operates under the same congressional act of incorporation that established the National Academy of Sciences, signed in 1863 by President Lincoln. Under this charter the NAE is directed "whenever called upon by any department or agency of the government, to investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art."
- David T. Allen (Chemical Engineering) 2017
- David R. Maidment (Architectural and Environmental Engineering) 2016
- Bridget R. Scanlon (Geology) 2016
- Joseph J. Beaman, Jr. (Mechanical Engineering) 2013
- Sharon L. Wood (Civil Engineering) 2013
- Keith P. Johnston (Chemical Engineering) 2011
- Stelios Kyriakides (Aerospace Engineering) 2007
- Simon S. Lam (Computer Science) 2007
- J. Strother Moore (Computer Science) 2007
- Nicholas A. Peppas (Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering) 2006
- Ivo M. Babuska (Aerospace Engineering) 2005
- George Georgiou (Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering) 2005
- John R. Howell (Mechanical Engineering) 2005
- Roy E. Olson (Civil Engineering) 2003
- Max L. Williams, Jr.* (Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Mechanics) 2003
- Robert E. Dickinson (Geological Sciences) 2002
- Ned H. Burns (Civil Engineering) 2000
- Joseph A. Yura (Civil Engineering) 2000
- Gary A. Pope (Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering) 1999
- Ben H. Caudle (Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering) 1998
- David W. Fowler (Civil Engineering) 1998
- Mary F. Wheeler (Aerospace Engineering) 1998
- Davis L. Ford (Civil Engineering) 1997
- Larry W. Lake (Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering) 1997
- Isaac C. Sanchez (Chemical Engineering) 1997
- Kenneth H. Stokoe II (Civil Engineering) 1997
- Richard L. Tucker (Civil Engineering) 1996
- Thomas J. R. Hughes (Aerospace Engineering) 1995
- William L. Fisher (Geological Sciences) 1994
- C. Michael Walton (Civil Engineering) 1993
- David T. Blackstock (Mechanical Engineering) 1992
- C. Grant Willson (Chemical Engineering) 1992
- James O. Jirsa (Civil Engineering) 1988
- J. Tinsley Oden (Aerospace Engineering) 1988
- Donald R. Paul (Chemical Engineering) 1988
- Adam Heller (Chemical Engineering) 1987
- Ben G. Streetman (Electrical & Computer Engineering) 1987
- Byron D. Tapley (Aerospace Engineering) 1987
- Raymond C. Loehr (Civil Engineering) 1983
- L. Hudson Matlock (Civil Engineering) 1982
- Irwin W. Sandberg (Electrical & Computer Engineering) 1981
- Harvey G. Cragon (Computer Science) 1978
- Frederick F. Ling (Mechanical Engineering) 1977
- John E. Breen (Civil Engineering) 1976
- John B. Goodenough (Mechanical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering) 1976
- Hans Mark (Aerospace Engineering) 1976
- Robert S. Schechter* (Chemical Engineering, Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering) 1976
- Lymon C. Reese* (Civil Engineering) 1975
- Herbert H. Woodson (Electrical & Computer Engineering) 1975
- James R. Fair* (Chemical Engineering) 1974
- Peter T. Flawn (Geological Sciences) 1974
- Earnest F. Gloyna (Civil Engineering) 1970
- John J. McKetta, Jr. (Chemical Engineering) 1970
Visit the National Academy of Engineering website.
National Academy of Medicine
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), established in 1970 under the name Institute of Medicine (IOM), is an independent organization of eminent professionals from diverse fields including health and medicine; the natural, social, and behavioral sciences; and beyond. It serves alongside the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering as adviser to the nation and the international community. Through its domestic and global initiatives, the NAM works to address critical issues in health, medicine, and related policy and inspire positive action across sectors.
The National Academy of Medicine is renowned for its research program, but it is also an honorific organization with more than 1,900 members and foreign associates who donate their time to put their knowledge and expertise to work for the nation’s health.
Each year, the full membership elects up to 70 new members and 10 foreign associates. Members are elected for their excellence and professional achievement in a field relevant to the Academy's mission and for their willingness to participate actively in its work. These individuals represent not only the health care professions but also the natural, social, and behavioral sciences, as well as law, administration, engineering, and the humanities.
Visit the National Academy of Medicine website.